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Murray Gell-Mann, born September 15, 1929, was a leading American physicist born in New Iork. His best known discovery was that of quarks, a particle found in the atom.
His family is from Jewish immigrants. Since childhood, he was already a child prodigy. He graduated Bachelor of Science in 1948 from Yale University. In 1951, he completed his PhD in Philosophy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
From 1952 to 1955, he taught at the University of Chicago and began his research on the interactions between protons and neutrons. I wanted to know the exact composition of the protons.
Gell-Mann and Abraham Pais studied particle physics. In 1961, he classified the elemental particles of hadrons, along with Kazuhiko Nishijima. This scheme is applied by the quark model. Gell-Mann and George Zweig independently postulated in 1964 the existence of quarks, which are the particles that make up protons and neutrons. He stated that quarks are the smallest particles of matter.
In 1969, he received the Nobel Prize in Physics for his research in the field of quantum physics. He is emeritus professor of theoretical physics at the California Institute of Technology and one of the founders of the Santa Fe Institute.
In 2005, he received the Albert Einstein Medal.