Types of waveguides

Types of waveguides

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Types of waveguides

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Table of contents

  • Optical principles
  • Snellius' law of refraction
  • Refraction in the wave pattern
  • Total reflection
  • Evanescent field
  • Waveguide
    • Waveguide types
  • Modes in optical waveguides
  • Polarized light
    • Generation of polarized light
    • Polarization by reflection
  • Fresnel's formulas
    • Phase jump at interfaces

40 min.

Preparation and review

  • Required basics
  • Further learning units

About the learning unit


  • Prof. Dr. Guenter Gauglitz
  • Prof. Guenter Gauglitz
  • Margarete Hotz
  • Dr. Manuela Reichert

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Fashion (physics)

One Fashion (from Engl. Fashion), even Vibration mode, in acoustics too Room fashion, in mechanics too Eigenform, Natural mode of vibration or Partial oscillation, in physics is the description of certain temporally stationary properties of a wave. The wave is described as the sum of different modes.

The modes differ in the spatial distribution of the intensity. The shape of the modes is determined by the boundary conditions under which the wave propagates. In contrast to the thematically related normal vibrations, the analysis according to vibration modes can be applied to both standing and continuous waves.

Nuclear energy

Nuclear energy is the chemical energy that holds the nuclear sub-particles of an atom together. Protons and neutrons.

The mass of an atomic nucleus is smaller than the sum of the masses of the elementary particles that make it up (mass defect). This mass defect is due to the occurrence of a cohesive energy absorbed by the core structure, which can be calculated using Einstein's theory of relativity.

The forces that hold atomic nuclei together have a lot of energy. Nuclear reactors can release this energy through a chemical reaction.


Depending on the federal state, the rules for opting out are different.

In Lower Saxony, if you choose one subject, you have to take up another (such as computer science or philosophy). In Hamburg you simply have one less subject. So it would be good to know how this is organized for you.

And you shouldn't be talking to any guys here who don't know you. Go to your teachers, they will be paid for it. They should advise you. Tell them about your worries and your wishes. The best thing to do is to go to the Nawi teachers, who can also tell you what the subjects in the upper school look like (in Lower Saxony: biology has a lot of chemistry, chemistry has a lot of physics and a lot of math is done in physics, etc) .

And ask them if you can opt out of a subject afterwards if it becomes too much for you. This is also often possible, as long as you get to your minimum number of hours.

Please don't make any vital decisions because someone on the internet who doesn't know you advised you to do so.

Lecture:LASER: principles, types and applications in chemistry

In the years after the demonstration of the first functional laser by T. Maiman in 1960, new lasers were continuously developed and new fields of application opened up. Since then, lasers have established themselves in many areas of everyday life. For chemistry, it is particularly relevant that lasers are at the heart of many modern diagnostic techniques - and the further development of such processes has traditionally been an important part of physical chemistry. In addition, they are important light sources for photophysical investigations.

In this lecture, the necessary basics about the structure and functional principle of lasers should first be discussed (Einstein equations, inversion, population kinetics). This will be followed by a discussion of the properties of laser radiation that make these devices such a versatile instrument in chemistry: coherence, polarization, frequency, continuous wave operation, generation of short pulses. The functionality of important laser types is discussed using selected examples (including gas lasers, dye lasers, solid-state lasers, semiconductor lasers, free-electron lasers). After an insertion about laser resonators (resonator types, longitudinal modes, transversal modes), elements and components of a modern laser are explained (cavity design, Q-switching, mode-locking). Another focus will be the discussion of the use of lasers, with science and metrology being the focus.

The aim of this event is to provide the participants with the basics for a successful use of lasers in chemistry and biochemistry, to recognize device restrictions and, if necessary, to compensate for them. The lecture is supported by demonstrations and, if necessary, by practical exercises in the laboratory.

Project description

Goal / concern

Theoretical background

Research questions

  • To what extent does a previous knowledge test that covers different types of previous knowledge determine the success of studies in biology or physics?
  • To what extent do individual types of prior knowledge predict success in studying biology or physics?



bibliography & dArr

Hailikari, T. (2009). Assessing University Students’s Prior Knowledge. Implications for Theory and Practice. University of Helsinki Department of Education Research Report, 227.& uArr

Curriculum PLUS

Valid from school year 2022/23

In grade 10, the students should physical knowledge and working methods as the basis for technical developments recognize. The topics of this grade are directly related to the development of new technologies and thus also to their impact on society. When developing and independently using central concepts and methods of physics, again and again in practical contexts, the students reflect critically on their results and discuss them appropriately and appropriately using their physical knowledge. They trace the influence of physical insights on technical progress, set objectively assessable opportunities and limits of gaining physical knowledge in relation to their personal attitudes and experiences and develop their own rationally justified standpoints that take into account both the benefit and the risk of technical developments.

The students should carry out at least two of the three (without profile area) designated student experiments. The alternative implementation of the possibly remaining Sch & uumllere experiment as a demonstration experiment is mandatory in this case, too, the relevant aspects of the associated competence expectation must be taken into account.

Ph10 learning area 1: electromagnetism (approx. 20 hours)

Competence Expectations

The students .

  • describe the basic properties of a field using a magnetic field as an example. With the help of field lines, they visualize the magnetic fields of permanent magnets, a current-carrying coil and the earth. They also use suitable software for this purpose. You use the right & # 8209 Faust rule and the three & # 8209 finger rule to determine the direction of current, magnetic field and force.
  • explain how an independently built simple electric motor works and investigate ways of varying its course.
  • independently plan various experiments to generate induction voltages. You carry out this independently, create a structured test protocol and, as a result, formulate the more statements about the dependence of the induction voltage on various variables.
  • apply appropriate rules and concepts to explain basic induction phenomena and, in the case of the generator, experimental observations. In doing so, they develop chains of arguments that are correct in technical terms and write short explanatory texts.
  • explain the structure and functional principle of a transformer based on their knowledge of induction. You carry out calculations on the ideal transformer and, with the help of the energy concept, justify the opposite translation of voltage and current.
  • reflect the effects of technical applications of electromagnetism such as electric motors, generators and transformers on social development at the end of the 19th century. Using this example, they discuss the interaction between technological progress and social change and draw parallels with the present.
Contents of the competencies:
  • Insight into the general concept of the field
  • Magnetic field: field line images of permanent magnets and current-carrying coils, indication of the cause of the earth's magnetic field
  • Force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field, Lorentz force
  • Student experiment: building a simple electric motor and explaining how it works
  • Generation of induction voltages, Student experiment: Investigation of the dependence of the induction voltage on different quantities
  • basic induction phenomena, generator
  • Transformer: structure and functional principle, voltage and current ratio in the ideal transformer

In addition to the copolymers (this term indicates the type and method of synthesis), which are designed and synthesized process-technically for intended applications, there is a large number of naturally selected biopolymers, which can in principle be referred to as copolymers, but which are usually associated with the term Heteropolymers (indicates the composition). Biological synthesis mechanisms for polymers follow different catalytic principles than those of chemical-synthetic polymer chemistry. Examples are proteins, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and cellulose overview.

Polymer alloys are obtained by mixing copolymers with one another or with polymers.

Room modes in acoustics

The room modes discolor the sound of a room because certain tones are particularly prominent and have an uneven distribution of energy within the room. If discrete resonance frequencies occur, these are more noticeable than if many resonance frequencies are evenly distributed in the spectrum (reverberation).

Above about 300 & # 160Hz (Schröder frequency) acoustic modes of the room in living rooms do not cause any audible distortion of the reproduction because the modes merge into one another in the form of dense reflections and reverberation. Below 300 & # 160Hz, on the other hand, they can cause perceptible discoloration of the sound. Since these affect the particularly low notes, this is called Roar, Booming, or One-note bass felt. The amplitude of an acoustic mode depends on its position in space. The degree of discoloration therefore differs from place to place.

There are three types of standing modes in acoustics that occur in a typical (cuboid) listening room. These are axial (longitudinal), tangential and diagonal modes (also called obligue or oblique modes). Because the axial modes clearly dominate, these are particularly important.

The following formula is used to calculate the frequency of axial, oblique and tangential modes for a rectangular space:

  • $ f $ the frequency of the mode in Hz
  • $ c_S $ the speed of sound 343 & # 160m / s (speed of sound at 20 ° C)
  • $ n_x $ the order of the mode room length
  • $ n_y $ the order of the mode room width
  • $ n_z $ the order of the mode room height
  • $ L $, $ B $, $ H $ are the length, width and height of the room in meters

Ramla Mahjoub

Development of the analytical method of the "International Council of Olive Oil" standard - Analysis of the Tunisian sample of olive pomace oil by "HPLC" and "GC-MS" within the "IRO" standards - Confirmation of the profitability of the developed method

Chemical engineer

-Treatment of the different types of drugs using different analytical techniques: "UPLC", "HPLC", "GC-MS", "IR", "UV" - Control of the quality of both the drugs and the medicinal substances - Investigations within the "GLP "And the" European Medicines Ordinance

Chemical engineer

- Quality control of the potable water according to the Tunisian and French norms - Investigations of heavy metals by "Spectrophotometry" - Determination of nitrate, nitrite and ammoniac in samples from private and public sources and water. - Daily control of the drinking water filtration process in the central potable water station in Sousse (Tunisia)

Educational background for Ramla Mahjoub

1 year and 6 months, Oct 2012 - Mar 2014

"Information Treatment and Complexity of the Living" Bioinformatics

Ecole Nationale d’Ingénieurs de Tunis "ENIT"

Data analysis Data mining Biosystemics

2 years and 11 months, Sep 2009 - Jul 2012

Analytical chemistry and instrumentation

Faculté des Sciences de Tunis

Analytical chemical techniques HPLC, UPLC, GC-MS, IR spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, X Ray spectroscopy and their instrumentation

Video: Waveguides - Weekly Whiteboard (May 2022).