# Substitution and elimination

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## Meaning of the leaving group at S.N1

In the speed-determining step of the $S.N1$Reaction breaks down the substrate into a positively charged carbocation and a negatively charged leaving group. In addition to the stability of the carbocation, the stability of the leaving group therefore also influences the rate of the reaction. The following applies: the softer the base (bound to the alkyl radical), the easier it is to break the C-X bond and the better the leaving group.

Are alcohols used as substrates in $S.N1$-Reactions are used, water is usually the leaving group, since the hydroxyl group is protonated under the usual acidic reaction conditions.