Chemistry

Endo- and exocytosis

Endo- and exocytosis


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Endo- and exocytosis

definition
Endocytosis and exocytosis are widespread transport processes in eukaryotes, with the help of which larger quantities of particles can be brought into or out of cells.

In endocytosis, the particles to be ingested are flown around by extensions of the cell membrane and finally transported in the membrane-enclosed vesicles into the interior of the cell. A distinction is made between pinocytosis and phagocytosis. In pinocytosis (= cellular drinking) dissolved substances are taken up in relatively small vesicles from the environment, in phagocytosis (= cellular eating) larger, solid food particles or even whole cells are transported into large vesicles or vacuoles. The best studied form of pinocytosis is the so-called receptor-mediated endocytosis for the targeted uptake of certain macromolecules.

Exocytosis is practically the reverse of endocytosis. Here, material is excreted from cells by fusing intracellular vesicles with the cell membrane and emptying their contents.

Literature

Alberts, B .; Johnson, A .; Jewis, J .; Raff, M .; Roberts, K .; Walter, P. (2002):Molecular Biology of the Cell. NCBI
Brodsky, F. M .; Chen, Y. C .; Knuehl, C .; Towler, M. C .; Wakeham, D. E. (2001):Biological basket weaving: formation and function of clathrin-coated vesicles. In: Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol.. 17, 517-568
Marsh, M .; McMahon, H. T. (1999):The structural era of endocytosis. In: Science. 285, 215-220
Musacchio, A .; Smith, C. J .; Roseman, A. M .; Harrison, S. C .; Kirchhausen, T .; Pearse, B. M. (1999):Functional organization of clathrin in coats: combining electron cryomicroscopy and X-ray crystallography. In: Mol. Cell. 3, 761-770
Pearse, B. M .; Smith, C. J .; Owen, D. J. (2000):Clathrin coat construction in endocytosis. In: Curr. Opin. Struct. 10, 220-228
Schmidt, S. L. (1997):Clathrin-coated vesicle formation and protein sorting: an integrated process. Biochem.. 66, 511-548
Takei, K .; Haucke, V. (2001):Clathrin-mediated endocytosis: membrane factors pull the trigger. In: Trends Cell Biol. . 11, 385-391


Video: Cell Transport (May 2022).